Iron-based alloys are called special, having special properties due to alloying with various chemical elements or special processing. They may be:
Heat resistant and heat resistant.
Wear resistant, etc.
Additives, i.e., alloying components, are introduced into the molten metal in various percentages, as a rule, up to 20-30%. Manganese, silicon, nickel, tungsten, copper and some other elements are used as them.
Among the promising and actively used special alloys are the following:
Hastelloy (Hastelloy), used for jet engines.
Rene (Rene), used to create components for devices operating in extreme temperatures.
Inconel (Inconel) – superalloys with ultra-high corrosion resistance at high temperatures.
VZhM (VZhM-4, VZhM-5) – heat-resistant nickel alloys.
VZhL (VZhL-12U-VI) – heat-resistant casting alloys, from which blanks are made for casting parts of gas turbines, etc.
Alloys with improved characteristics are being developed for the needs of mechanical engineering and machine tool building, as well as for the electric power, aviation, space, chemical industries and medicine.
They are actively used for the production of pipelines and various devices operated under conditions of high pressure, extreme temperatures, and aggressive environments. There are also alloys with special magnetic and electrical properties. They are used in heating elements, precision instruments, rheostats, electric motors.